The 11th Circuit awarded Rule 38 sanctions against a pro se litigant who argued, against a mountain of legal authority, that his wages were not taxable income. Swanson v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, No. 21-11576 (11th Circuit October 5, 2021).
Federal Rule of Appellate Procedure 38 allows a court of appeals, after a separately filed motion and reasonable opportunity to respond, to award damages and single or double costs to an appellee if the court determines that the appeal is frivolous. Fed. R. App. P. 38. Although we generally prefer that the government establish its costs and attorney’s fees by affidavit, we have previously granted the government’s motion for lump sum sanctions in the interest of judicial economy. See, e.g., King v. United States, 789 F.2d 883, 884-85 (11th Cir. 1986); see also Stubbs, 797 F.2d at 938-39. We explained that “this procedure is [in the appellant’s] interest since he would be liable for the additional costs and attorney’s fees incurred during any proceedings on remand.” King, 789 F.2d at 884-85.
Additionally, we have previously warned appellants seeking to argue that their wages are not taxable income “that they may be expected to have sanctions imposed against them if they continue to raise these sorts of frivolous contentions.” Hyslep v. United States, 765 F.2d 1083, 1084-85 (11th Cir. 1985). In fact, in the unpublished opinion in Swanson’s previous appeal, we concluded that Rule 38 sanctions were appropriate because (1) Swanson’s arguments were frivolous, and (2) he had been warned about their frivolity through our precedent and the district court’s express statement that his position was frivolous. Swanson, 799 F. App’x at 671-72. Accordingly, we granted the government’s motion and awarded a lump sum of $8,000 in sanctions. Id. at 672. Further, we have previously granted the government’s motion for lump sum sanctions of $8,000 in another frivolous tax appeal. See Herriman v. Comm’r of Internal Revenue Serv., 521 F. App’x 912, 914 (11th Cir. 2013) (unpublished).
As discussed above, Swanson’s arguments in this appeal have already been held to be frivolous. As to whether his pursuit of this appeal warrants sanctions, Swanson was previously sanctioned for raising similar frivolous arguments. See Swanson, 799 F. App’x at 671-72. Similarly, the Tax Court expressly warned him that his position was frivolous when denying his motion for summary judgment. In light of these warnings, particularly his previous appeal, Rule 38 sanctions are appropriate.
Thus, we GRANT the government’s motion for sanctions and award $8,000 in sanctions. Accordingly, we DENY all pending motions and petitions as moot.